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The Xenophile Historian



Appendix 2: A LIST OF THE KINGS WHO RULED THE EMPIRES DESCRIBED IN CHAPTERS 5-9






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Assyria

Four Important Early Assyrian Monarchs

Shamshi-Adad I1813-1781
Ashur-uballit I1365-1330
Tukulti-Ninurta I1224-1208
Tiglath-Pileser I1115-1077

The Kings of the New Assyrian Empire

Adad-Nirari II911-890
Tukulti-Ninurta II890-884
Ashurnasirpal II884-859
Shalmaneser III859-824
Shamshi-Adad V824-811
Adad-Nirari III811-782
Shalmaneser IV782-772
Ashurdan III772-754
Ashur-Nirari V754-745
Tiglath-Pileser III745-727
Shalmaneser V727-722
Sargon II722-705
Sennacherib705-681
Esarhaddon681-669
Ashurbanipal669-627
Ashur-etil-ilani627-623
Sin-shar-ishkun623-612
Ashur-uballit II612-609

Lydia

Gyges690-652
Ardys678-629
Sadyattes629-617
Alyattes617-560
Croesus560-546

Media

Cyaxares625-585
Astyages585-550

Babylon

Nabopolassar626-606
Nebuchadnezzar606-562
Amel-Marduk562-560
Neriglissar560-556
Nabonidus556-539

Persia

Cyrus the Great559-529
Cambyses529-522
Smerdis522
Darius the Great522-486
Xerxes486-465
Artaxerxes I465-424
Xerxes II424-423
Darius II423-404
Artaxerxes II404-358
Artaxerxes III358-338
Arses338-336
Darius III336-330

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Greek Kingdoms

Macedonia (Argead Dynasty)

18 kingsabout 650-359 B.C.
Philip II359-336
Alexander III (the Great)336-323
Philip III (Arrhidaeus)323-317
Alexander IV323-310

Macedonia (Antipatrid Dynasty)

Cassander310-297
Philip IV297
Antipater (East)297-294
Alexander V (West)297-294

Lysimachus (Thrace)306-281

The Antigonid Dynasty

Antigonus I (Cyclops)306-301
Demetrius I (Poliorcetes)306-285
Antigonus II (Gonatas)285-239
Demetrius II239-229
Antigonus III (Doson)229-221
Philip V221-179
Perseus179-168

The Seleucids

Seleucus I (Nicator I)312-281
Antiochus I (Soter I)281-261
Antiochus II (Theos)261-241
Seleucus II (Callinicus)246-225
Seleucus III (Soter II)225-223
Antiochus III (the Great) 223-187
Seleucus IV (Philopator)187-175
Antiochus IV (Epiphanes I)175-163
Antiochus V (Eupator)163-162
Demetrius I (Soter III)162-150
Alexander I (Balas) 150-145
Demetrius II (Nicator II)145-139 and 129-125
Antiochus VI (Epiphanes II)145-142
Antiochus VII (Sidetes)139-129
Alexander II (Zabinas)128-123
Alexander VIII (Gryphus)125-96
Seleucus V125
Antiochus IX (Cyzicenus)115-95
Seleucus VI (Epiphanes Nicator)96-95
Antiochus X (Eusebes Philopator)95-83
Antiochus XI (Philadelphus I) 92
Philip I (Philadelphus II)92-83
Demetrius III (Eukairos Soter)95-88
Antiochus XII (Dionysius)87-84
Tigranes (of Armenia)83-69
Antiochus XIII (Asiaticus)69-64
Philip II65-64

The Ptolemies

285-246
Ptolemy I (Soter I)305-283
Ptolemy II (Philadelphus)
Ptolemy III (Euergetes I)246-222
Ptolemy IV (Philopator)222-204
Ptolemy V (Epiphanes)204-181
Ptolemy VI (Philometor)181-145
Ptolemy VII (Philopator Neos)145
Ptolemy VIII (Euergetes II)163-116
Ptolemy IX (Soter II)116-80
Ptolemy X (Alexander I)116-88
Ptolemy XI (Alexander II)80
Ptolemy XII (Auletes)88-58 and 55-51
Berenice58-55
Cleopatra VII51-30
Ptolemy XIII51-47
Ptolemy XIV47-44
Ptolemy XV (Caesarion)44-30

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Rome

The Julian Dynasty (descendants of Julius Caesar)

Augustus27 B.C.-14 A.D.
Tiberius I14 A.D.-37 A.D.
Caligula37-41
Claudius I41-54
Nero54-68

Civil War

Galba68
Otho68
Vitellius68-69

The Flavian Dynasty

Vespasian69-79
Titus79-81
Domitian81-96

The Five Good Emperors--Peak of the Roman Empire

Nerva96-98
Trajan98-117
Hadrian117-138
Antoninus Pius138-161
Marcus Aurelius161-180
Verus161-169

The Pax Romana Ends

Commodus180-192
Pertinax192-193
Julianus193

The Severan Dynasty

Septimius Severus193-211
Geta211-212
Caracalla212-217
Macrinus217-218
Elagabalus218-222
Severus Alexander222-235

The Soldier Emperors

Maximinus235-238
Gordian I & II238
Maximus Pupienus and Balbinus238
Gordian III238-244
Philip the Arab244-249
Decius249-251
Gallus251-253
Aemilianus253
Valerian253-260
Gallienus253-268
Claudius II268-270
Aurelian270-275
Tacitus275-276
Florianus276
Probus276-282
Carus282-283
Numerian283-284
Carinus283-285

Rome Becomes a Divine-Right Monarchy

Diocletian (East)284-305
Maximian (West)286-305, 307-308
Constantius I (West)305-306
Galerius (East)305-311
Severus II (West)305-307
Maxentius (West)306-312
Maximinus II (East)308-313
Licinius (East)307-324
Constantine I (the Great)306-337
Constantine II (West)337-340
Constans I (Center)337-350
Constantius II (East)337-361
Magnentius (West)350-353
Julian the Apostate 360-363
Jovian363-364
Valentinian I (West)364-375
Valens (East)364-378
Gratian (West)367-383
Valentinian II (West)375-392
Magnus Maximus (West)383-388
Eugenius (West)392-394
Theodosius I (East)379-395

The Last Western Emperors

Honorius395-423
Constantius III421
Johannes423-425
Valentinian III425-455
Petronius Maximus455
Avitus455-456
Majorian456-461
Libius Severus461-465
Anthemius465-472
Olybrius472
Glycerius472-474
Julius Nepos474-475
Romulus Augustulus475 to 476

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Byzantium

The Theodosian Dynasty

Arcadius395-408
Theodosius II408-450
Marcian450-457
Leo I457-474
Leo II474
Zeno474-491
Anastasius I491-518

The Justin Dynasty

Justin I518-527
Justinian I527-565
Justin II565-578
Tiberius II578-582
Maurice582-602
Phocas602-610

The Heraclian Dynasty

Heraclius610-641
Constantine III641
Heracleonas641
Constans II641-668
Constantine IV (Pogonatus)668-685
Justinian II685-695 & 705-711

Interregnum

Leontius695-698
Tiberius698-705
Philippicus711-713
Anastasius II713-715
Theodosius III715-717

The Isaurian Dynasty

Leo III (Isauricus)717-741
Constantine V (Copronymus)741-775
Leo IV775-780
Constantine VI780-797
Irene797-802

Interregnum

Nicephorus I802-811
Stauracius811
Michael I811-813
Leo V (the Armenian)813-820

The Amorian Dynasty

Michael II820-829
Theophilus829-842
Michael III842-867

The Macedonian Dynasty

Basil I (the Magnificent)867-886
Leo VI886-912
Alexander912-913
Constantine VII (Porphyrogenitus)912-959
Romanus I920-944
Romanus II959-963
Nicephorus II (Phocas)963-969
John I (Tzimisces)969-976
Basil II ("the Bulgar-slayer")976-1025
Constantine VIII976-1028
Zoe1028-1050
Romanus III (Argyrus)1028-1034
Michael IV (the Paphlagonian)1034-1041
Michael V (Calaphates)1041-1042
Constantine IX (Monomachus)1042-1055
Theodora1042-1056
Michael VI (Stratioticus)1056-1057
Isaac I (Comnenus)1057-1059

The Dukas Dynasty

Constantine X (Dukas)1059-1067
Romanus IV (Diogenes)1067-1071
Michael VII1071-1078
Nicephorus III (Botaniates)1078-1081

The Comneni Dynasty

Alexius I (Comnenus)1081-1118
John II1118-1143
Manuel I1143-1180
Alexius II1180-1183
Andronicus I1183-1185

The Angeli Dynasty

Isaac II (Angelus)1185-1204
Alexius III1193-1203
Alexius IV1203-1204
Alexius V (Dukas)1204

The Latin Empire

Baldwin I (of Flanders)1204-1205
Henry1205-1216
Peter of Courtenay1216-1217
Yolande1217-1219
Robert of Courtenay1219-1228
John of Brienne1228-1237
Baldwin II1237-1261

The Empire of Nicaea

Theodore I (Lascaris)1204-1222
John III (Vatatzes)1222-1254
Theodore II1254-1258
John IV1258-1261
Michael VIII (Paleologus)1259-1261

The Paleologus Dynasty

Michael VIII (Paleologus)1261-1282
Andronicus II1282-1328
Michael IX1295-1320
Andronicus III1328-1341
John V1341-1391
John VI (Cantacuzene)1347-1354
Andronicus IV1376-1379
John VII1390 and 1399-1402
Manuel II1391-1425
John VIII1425-1448
Constantine XI1448-1453


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